Ripetere, ripetere, ripetere. Ripetere per imparare una poesia a memoria, ripetere per memorizzare le formule chimiche o le informazioni del libro di storia. Fin dalle elementari ci hanno insegnato questo semplice ‘trucco’ per imparare più facilmente. Una strategia che, però, sarebbe fallimentare. Secondo un nuovo studio, pubblicato sulla rivista “Learning and Memory”, la semplice ripetizione potrebbe interferire con le capacità di memoria. Ma non solo. “Potrebbe crearci qualche difficoltà nell’apprendere nuove informazioni su quello stesso argomento che stiamo ripetendo”, spiegano gli psicologi Henry Roediger e Mark McDaniel.
“Ripetere può essere un tranello – continuano – ci dà la sensazione di aver imparato qualcosa quando, in realtà, non è così”. Nell’esperimento, i ricercatori hanno mostrato più volte ai partecipanti una lista di oggetti. Poi li hanno messi di fronte ad oggetti simili (“esche”): coloro che avevano visto gli oggetti più volte riconoscevano più facilmente l’oggetto originale ma trovavano qualche difficoltà con le esche. Insomma, la loro memoria era più forte, eppure meno precisa.
“Succede questo: quando leggi qualcosa per la prima volta, impari molto. La seconda volta, invece, leggi pensando: ‘Questo lo so, questo pure. Questo l’ho già visto’ – spiegano gli psicologi – non stai capendo sul serio la materia, non ne estrai nulla. La ri-lettura e la ripetizione sono insidiose per questo. Perché ti danno la sensazione di sapere tutto, quando, in verità, hai delle lacune”.
Se la nostra memoria ‘fa cilecca’, ecco 3 modi in cui possiamo rafforzarla:
1. USA IL “METODO DEI LOCI”
2. RIPETI A INTERVALLI
3. COLLEGA I PUNTI
FONTE : Huffingtonpost
Repeat, repeat, repeat. Repeat to learn a poem by heart, repeating to store chemical formulas or the information in the book of history. Since elementary school we were taught this simple ‘trick’ to learn more easily. This strategy, however, would be a failure. According to a new study, published in the journal “Learning and Memory”, the mere repetition could interfere with the memory capacity. But not only. “It could create us some difficulty for learning new information on the same topic that we are repeating,” say psychologists Henry Roediger and Mark McDaniel.
“Repeat can be a catch – they continue – it gives us the feeling of having learned something when, in fact, it is not so.” In the experiment, the researchers showed participants several times to a list of objects. Then they put them in front of similar items (“bait”): those who had seen the objects repeatedly recognized more easily the original object but found some difficulty in the water. In short, their memory was stronger, yet less precise.
“It happens this: when you read something for the first time, you learn a lot. The second time, however, more thinking, I know this well. This I’ve seen’ – explain psychologists – you’re not serious about understanding the matter, so you do not extract anything. The re-reading and repetition are treacherous for it. Because they give you the feeling of knowing everything, when, in truth, you have some gaps. “
If our memory ‘misfires’, here are three ways we can strengthen it:
1. USE THE “METHOD OF LOCI”
It is a very old and is the father of memory techniques. Involves inserting objects in sequential order in a ‘imaginary’ world, created especially by our mind. Just identifying a location or a family building and put right there items that you have to learn. For example, if you want to store the word “machine”, “ship”, “dog”, all together, trying to build a mental picture in which there are all three there. For more complicated words or phrases, you can create a series of connections between them, imagining what can unite your subjects.
2. REPEAT WITH SOME PAUSE
Repeat it does not hurt. It is better to say that it is not always effective. “The best thing would be to give the right space to repeat, take breaks that can last from one hour to one week,” explain psychologists. “Continue to ask yourself to remember perfectly what a particular toll on your mind, do not contribute anything more. What we can do well, however, is repeating at regular intervals of time.” But what would be the right longer time ? Everything depends on commitments. We can repeat after one hour from the time we read the material, then again after going to the gym, then come back in three days or a week.
3. CONNECT POINTS
The secret to store? Understand. In a study published in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, the researchers observed that students in the second year of biology acquire new information better because they can refer to something that they have already studied, to insights of the first year: “If you do not know immediately an answer, you can try to ‘fish out’ something you have learned in the past on that particular topic. This helps you to find the right answer, “say the researchers. Enough, in fact, connect the dots of our memory.